MONTHLY SINCE 1999
ISSUE # 210
For those of you who are waiting for my response to the recent election, I will send out my political opinion in a separate email shortly so I donÕt overlap my astrological work with my political discussion. Those who wish to read it can do so. But those who are only interested in the astrology will still have this newsletter to reference.
This month we have several important aspects to consider. Mercury will retrograde on December 19th, the very day the Electoral College will vote for president. While thatÕs an interesting point I do not believe it will reverse the results of the election. But with the state of our political situation in this country, who knows? It does speak volumes about the incoming administration and the difficulties that will abound. There will be problems with communication, knowledge and understanding. Many mistakes will take place, but this would be true no matter who was taking office. It is even more imperative than usual that we the people hold our government accountable for the policies it will install. While Mercury is in retrograde we must all pay attention to the details and not miss important facts. Travel and communications will be difficult and trying.
Jupiter will oppose Uranus for the first of three passes. This can be an exciting and adventurous aspect, although it does require attention. ItÕs easy to overdo things when these two planets are in contact. They are the most freedom loving energies in the zodiac, and there is a tendency to ignore boundaries and limitations. A word to the wise Š while this aspect is applying use common sense and donÕt overindulge or make too many promises you cannot keep. This opposition also speaks of the changes our nation is experiencing and just how intense and upsetting they will be for many. Try to find some equilibrium and balance your thoughts and temper. ItÕs only with a clear head that you can do anything successfully or help a situation you do not like. If youÕre scattered and unfocused you will not do yourself or anyone else much good. This is not a balanced aspect, but rather an erratic and high-spirited one. ThatÕs not a bad thing, and may shake many of us in a way we need to be shaken. But as I said, it requires that we pay attention and be aware of whatÕs going on so we can respond accordingly.
Saturn is in trine to Uranus this month as well on December 24th. It will return May 19th and November 11th 2017. This has been an underlying supportive aspect that has allowed the changes we have seen to take place. Uranus wants change, while Saturn does not. When these two work harmoniously itÕs possible to alter the status quo without upsetting things too much. I donÕt believe that is what is about to happen in this country. I think the changes will be radical and very upsetting. But this trine will allow the transition to occur without some of the troubles that could occur. This trine might allow for some compromises that would have seemed unlikely. Already we are seeing Trump looking at some issues from a different perspective and at least listening to different voices. I donÕt think itÕs going to make much of a difference, but it may help settle tings down a bit this year.
In our personal lives we should try to use this aspect to make alterations in our own situations. There is a chance to tweak a relationship, career, job or other circumstance and aim it in a more positive and productive direction.
The New Moon falls on Tuesday November 29th at 7:18 A.M. EST at 7 degrees Sagittarius 43 minutes. Sagittarius, more than any other sign represents the most far-sighted and future oriented energy. It looks at the big picture and can see way down the road. Though it often can miss or ignore the details in things and needs to be reminded of that. It does have the ability to expand and generate new ideas. But the word of warning that comes with this sign is to pay strict attention to whatÕs going on right in front of you. There is a tendency to pay so much consideration to the future that we can miss the present. We give Sag rulership over the 9th house of higher education and philosophy. Its expansive tendencies are concerned with growth and learning and that is its strong suit. The 9th house also rules foreigners, foreign lands and long journeys, all issues that enlarge our perspective and open our minds to new ways of looking at the world. The worst thing we can do with Sagittarius energy is to limit its potential or put blinders on. Unfortunately with the incoming administration we are entering an era of restriction and small-mindedness, and that will not work well with anyone who has strong Sagittarius energy. In fact, it will cause a lot of problems for Mr. Trump who has the moon in this sign. There will be many personal conflicts and problems for him as he goes about his business.
VENUS SQUARES URANUS:
Also on Tuesday November 29th at 3:20 P.M. EST love will take a decidedly unusual turn. The aspects that coincide with a New Moon help set the pace of that lunar cycle. This month will be somewhat unusual in love and finances. You can expect some interesting and different romantic connections that will be exciting but may lack stability. If this square sets off your chart you might become attracted to someone who is quite different from your regular taste. If so, you may wish to pursue it, and it could be quite stimulating. But I would give it some time before committing too much of your feelings. Once the initial interest wears off you may discover that the relationship doesnÕt have what you need for the long term. I expect some difficulties in the financial markets. How bad they are will have much to do with the psychological undercurrent this new administration will project.
THE SUN SQUARES NEPTUNE:
On Wednesday November 30th at 8:17 P.M. EST this difficult and confusing transit will complete. This is a day of misdirection and complications. DonÕt take everything at face value. There will be a lot of misunderstandings and a lack of clarity. You must go out of your way to insure that you are understood and that you understand what others are saying. Otherwise confusion will abound. People can be less than forthright and often use the fog Neptune creates to their own advantage. Lying or misrepresentation is common. This is also a low energy transit that many of us will feel, especially if it sets off your chart. DonÕt take on more than you can handle. If youÕre tired, just rest. Prioritize your errands and get the most important ones done first. Caution is called for with the ingestions of all chemicals including alcohol and all drugs (legal or illegal has no bearing in this). ItÕs easy to overindulge or to have a bad reaction to something even as common as an over-the-counter medication. This is often a very bad aspect for the stock markets. The Sun rules the will, and Neptune tends to dissipate whatever it comes in contact with. Between the confusion and misdirection this can produce, and the low vitality there may not be much enthusiasm for trading.
MARS TRINES JUPITER:
On Thursday December 1st at 10:46 P.M. EST this very positive and energetic trine will give us all a short burst of energy. Because this comes on the heels of the more powerful Sun Š Neptune square mentioned above, its effects may be muted. But as this comes closer in the evening we should all feel some good power and a sense of strong ego. This is a very sociable aspect and outgoing combination so a holiday party or a date would probably go well. If you have a project or presentation that youÕve been waiting to delve into, this may be a good day to get it going. Many of us will be projecting a very optimistic and strong persona, and others will respond in kind. If this trine sets off your personal chart its effects will be that much more pronounced.
MERCURY ENTERS CAPRICORN:
On Friday December 2nd at 4:19 P.M. EST the planet of communication enters this Saturn-ruled sign. Because Mercury will retrograde on December 19th it will remain in Capricorn (except for a short reentrance into Sagittarius) until February 7th. This is a long period during which our thoughts and communications will be realistic and somewhat tempered. This will not be a time of exuberance or big schemes, but rather a period of austerity and common sense. How well the individual does under this energy has much to do with what the natal chart looks like. If you are used to grandiose plans and donÕt care much for limitations, this will be a sobering and possibly frustrating time. But if you have your Mercury in an earth sign or solidly placed by house and aspect, you will feel right at home and be able to accomplish much. This is a time to focus on your work and pay attention to details. If you prioritize properly you will find that this will be a period of stability and progress. But even if you are more apt to expand without regards for boundaries, you can still use this energy to your advantage. There are times when we all must examine our ideas and projects and weed out those that are not serving us successfully. This is one of those times. If you pay attention to whatÕs most important and donÕt become distracted by the noise of life, you can get your work done and be prepared for a big move in February once Mercury enters Aquarius. The key to successfully using astrology is to understand the energy thatÕs in front of you and using it to your advantage. Not trying to sidestep it or interpret it to your personal desires. Capricorn will clearly show us whatÕs most important. Pay attention.
MARS SEXTILES SATURN:
On Saturday December 3rd at 7:16 A.M. EST this useful aspect will balance out our ego with our responsibilities. Mars is energy unrestricted. Saturn of course represents all sense of limitations and restrictions. When they are in conflict it can be a difficult time with feelings of frustration and repression. But with a trine or sextile we are given the opportunity to use these two conflicting forces more successfully and with purpose. The few days leading up to this aspect will produce a focused and functional force. (I love alliterations). Try to use it to your best interests.
Because of the current Saturn Š Uranus trine Mars will sextile each in short order. So we should not separate the two transits but consider them part of the whole. That trine is offering our culture a chance to put some things in order and settle down some of the agitation that has been prominent.
MARS SEXTILES URANUS:
On Tuesday December 6th at 10:30 P.M. EST the second half of this pair of transits will bring us all a heightened sense of our environment and a jolt of energy that should be used productively. When these two planets are in contact there is often an unsettled feeling of agitation and excitement. Because it is a sextile it will be easier to use and project where we want it. But it will still be an erratic and possibly uncontrollable force. By focusing your attention and directing this into projects and useful activities you can get things done. This will be another good day for social encounters and I would suggest a get-together of some sort or a date. There will be enough oomph in the air to stimulate good conversation. Any physical activity may work out well. I like bowling. But a long walk, bike ride or other strenuous action will make your muscles feel good and the blood flow. Egos will be powerful, and it behooves us all to avoid any unnecessary conflicts. If someone is acting out, you would be better off sidestepping their actions. But if thereÕs something that has required a direct confrontation and you havenÕt had the strength or desire to face it, you may be ready now. As long as you are in control of your feelings you can use this sextile to push your ideas and agenda forward.
VENUS ENTERS AQUARIUS:
On Wednesday December 7th at 9:51 A.M. EST until January 3rd at 2:47 A.M. EST the planet of love and money will travel through this most erratic of signs. Romance will be exciting and different. Many of us may become attracted to someone quite different than usual, and as I always suggest under Aquarius or Uranus energy Š give it some time to prove itself before investing too much. You may be interested in someone, but there could be a lack of stability and structure underneath. But this will be an interesting time when something new may stimulate you in ways that you havenÕt felt for a while. Financial situations require a lot of attention now. It will be easy to act frivolously or overspend. This is true for the individual, but also for the collective. The stock markets may be quite erratic as well. There could be some serious ups and downs, and you can certainly expect some unusual financial reports and ideas from the incoming administration. Try to stay on a budget and donÕt let yourself spent without thinking. Big price items in particular will be appealing, but they may not be as interesting in a week or two once the excitement wears off.
THE SUN SEXTILES JUPITER:
On Friday December 9th at 4:39 P.M. EST this very positive and enthusiastic sextile completes. This may be a day of some energetic and growth-oriented actions. If thereÕs a project youÕve been trying to move forward, this may help you do so. If youÕve been waiting to make a decision about something important, you may find the optimism youÕve been lacking. This would be a good day for travel or anything involving education. A new class, purchasing that 500 page book on LBJ or any other mentally stimulating activity will be rewarding. A drive in the country or a trip to another city that begins under this aspect usually is quite enjoyable and exciting.
MERCURY SEXTILES NEPTUNE:
On Saturday December 10th at 3:26 A.M. EST this creative aspect comes along. This is a very stimulating transit, especially for artists or anyone seeking a spiritual outlet. We will all be thinking and communicating from a deeper place than usual and the mundane actions we usual are involved in may seem less important. Poets, musicians and other creative sorts will feel a special energy that could help overcome lethargy and give you a push in the right direction. This isnÕt a very powerful aspect, and it could easily pass without notice. But if you pay attention to its energy you will feel the opening of your consciousness and an invitation into the spiritual side of life. Because this completes so early in the morning its effects will be felt more powerfully the night before. With the Sun about to conjunct Saturn (see below) this may be a bit limited, but that conjunction will also give you a realistic way to direct this creativity.
THE SUN CONJUNCTS SATURN:
Also on Saturday December 10th at 6:51 A.M. EST this restrictive combination will put a damper on many of our actions and ideas. This will set up the atmosphere for the day ahead, and many of us may wake up after some difficult dreams. As I often say, try not to swim against the current, unless youÕre a salmon. Use this realistic and controlled energy to your advantage. Get your work done, clean off your desk, or have that serious conversation youÕve been avoiding. Take the time to make some important decisions. You donÕt have to accomplish everything in a day, but you can get started and put some things in order. The Sun will trine Uranus on Monday to set off the Saturn Š Uranus trine, so whatever you begin today will have more energy and enthusiasm in a few days. Just settle things down and get ready for action. ItÕs coming. This is not a good day for socializing or romantic encounters. ItÕs more about budgeting, putting work projects together and making plans for the future. This is a good day to take a long walk by yourself and think things through. Once this passes you can have that party or spend the day playing.
THE SUN TRINES URANUS:
On Monday December 12th at 1:56 A.M. EST this trine completes. This is a good day for any actions or for new and adventurous ideas. Because this completes early in the morning its effects will be felt stronger the night before. But still, it will set up the motion for Monday. If something exciting is in the air you may be more willing to look into it than you usually are. I would suggest that you seek out new and unusual people, projects and ideas. You may have a very enlightening conversation or just be more open to some new perspective. This precedes the Gemini Full Moon tomorrow, and there will be a lot of mental energy around. Take off the blinders and look at the world around you. You may be quite pleasantly surprised at whatÕs being offered.
This monthÕs lunar peak occurs on Tuesday December 13th at 7:05 P.M. EST at 22 degree Gemini 26 minutes. The Gemini Full Moon is often a few days of exciting and stimulating power. This year it falls right in the middle of the Christmas shopping period, and many people will be out and about enjoying the holiday festivities. Gemini is all about communications, and lively interactions will be everywhere. I would plan a dinner and some activity in a social environment. Shopping or just walking around a city and looking at all the lights and decorations will be exhilarating. You may encounter someone who has a lot to tell you, so pay attention. If thereÕs something thatÕs been on your mind this may be the time that you choose to reveal it. Others may also have been keeping something inside and you could hear from them now as well. Short journeys will be rewarding. A trip crosstown to an old friend, a drive to the suburbs to visit relatives you havenÕt seen in some time, or any other interaction that will activate your mind is a good idea.
MARS ENTERS PISCES:
On Monday December 19th at 4:23 A.M. EST until January 28th at 12:39 A.M. EST the planet that rules the ego will be in this Neptune ruled sign. This isnÕt the easiest placement for Mars, although as with all aspects there is a positive side to it. Mars is energy, plain and simple. It wants to be active and project itself into the world without restriction or hesitation. But Pisces is a more reserved and internal sign, so it has the tendency to put some restrictions on the ego. But if you are able to see things from a less materialistic point of view you may be able to get in touch with that inner side of your personality. Many people born with this placement are drawn to the arts, or do charity work of all sorts. If you can put your ego in the backseat for a little while you may be able to work out some important issues involving your self-image. This could also be a good time to help others in an unselfish manner. The rewards that can accompany a reserved ego are many. You may not see them immediately, but down the line any good deeds you do that are altruistic do come back many fold. This will be a time of spiritual growth and understanding. Use it as such and you will be happy you did.
Also on Monday December 19th at 5:55 A.M. EST until January 8th at 4:43 A.M. EST our mischievous little friend begins his backward dance. Because Mercury will be mostly in Capricorn through its retrograde period issues of stability, finances and foundation will be prominent. We will all have to confront situations that require a realistic and clear point of view. There may be some reversals in ideas and policy, and over the next three weeks we will see some truths revealed that will be difficult to assimilate. Because this is the period of transition in government, many things about our nation that have been buried will come to the surface. We will hear much about the plans being instilled in our capitol, and it will be an awakening for many people. Capricorn rules the banking and the housing industries, and over the next period we could learn some unsettling and disturbing news about them. As always with a Retrograde Mercury you must use extra caution and double check all paperwork. It is recommended that you NOT sign important documents under the Rx Mercury unless you have no choice. But always scrutinize them closely to avoid missing some important piece of information. This is not a good time to buy a new phone, car, computer or any other devise that has to do with travel or communication. You may find there are difficulties with it and could regret your purchase when Mercury goes direct.
THE SUN ENTERS CAPRICORN:
On Wednesday December 21st at 5:45 A.M. EST we enter the cardinal earth sign. As my readers know, the beginning of each of the four cardinal signs represents the start of the four seasons. That in itself should convince many non-believers of the power astrology has in our society. I wonÕt go into the many examples, but this one alone has always made me chuckle. So we are at the start of winter, and the shortest day of the year. From now on each day will be just a little bit longer.
This sign is interested in what is real and stable. It rules the outside of the house (the opposite sign of Cancer rules the inside), the land the house sits on, the housing market, banks and has much to do with corporations and big business, although Aquarius actually rules groups such as corporations. This is the time of year when many of us begin our hibernation, a very Capricornian venture. This is a time to focus on your work, responsibilities and long-term plans. ItÕs not a very sociable sign, although we do have Christmas and New YearÕs falling in its space. I have always felt those two holidays are much more about obligations than partying. We go to family for Christmas (a religious holiday, lest we forget). We make New YearÕs resolutions to improve our lives, limit our bad habits, and restrain our financial frivolity. It is those very restrictive actions that define this time of year. Pay attention to your most pressing situations and try to find solutions that will bring you a better circumstance.
SATURN TRINES URANUS:
On Saturday December 24th at 7:17 P.M. EST this trine completes. This is a stabilizing force that is underlying our society. It will complete again May 19th and November 11th and continue to work in the undercurrent all year. It allows us to make the changes Uranus requires while holding the foundation Saturn represents intact. We often must make a choice between change and stability. But here we have the opportunity to work with both in tandem. In our individual lives there is a chance to move forward without upsetting the status quo. If this sets off your chart you may be able to figure out ways to advance your agenda and not have to give up too much of your security, ideals and beliefs. Hopefully it will help our countryÕs factions find some common ground. IÕm not all that optimistic that our wounds will suddenly be healed, but this trine MAY allow for some compromises that seem less likely at the moment. We can only hope.
MERRY CHRISTMAS, HAPPY HANUKKAH, AND HAPPY KWANZAA
VENUS TRINES JUPITER, SEXTILES URANUS & SEXTILES SATURN:
On Sunday December 25th at 8:23 A.M., 11:35 A.M. & 1:33 P.M. EST these three positive Venus transits will help us all celebrate the holidays in a more easy-going and joyful way. Venus is the planet of pleasure more than any other. The trine to Jupiter and sextile to Uranus will create an atmosphere of excitement and indulgence, and put us in a partying mood. The sextile to Saturn will help temper that exuberance and keep things tethered and real. This is actually a very good combination that should make this a more pleasant day for us all. Christmas and the first day of Hanukkah both fall on the 25th this year, so there is an affinity in the Judeo-Christian world that can represent
JUPITER OPPOSES URANUS:
On Monday December 26th at 1:32 P.M. EST this exciting aspect will complete. This will return March 2nd at 8:19 P.M. EST and September 28th at 12:24 A.M. EST. This requires some caution, as these two energies are explosive and expansive. This combination could result in some very interesting events if it sets off your chart. ThereÕs an adventurous side to this that may stimulate you to look for unusual and exciting people, ideas and events. This is not a time to sit idly by and wait passively. ItÕs a chance to explore and take chances, though as I said above, with caution. IÕve seen people win big amounts of money gambling under this combination, but of course it must be active in your own chart in order to accomplish something of that order. While this can be a positive aspect, it also implies that there may be an underlying volcano waiting to erupt. Jupiter rules the law. Uranus rules elected government officials. We may see some serious legal matters brought out regarding this administration sometime this year. However you use this energy you shouldnÕt restrict your possibilities, but open your mind up to new and different concepts.
MERCURY SEXTILES NEPTUNE:
Also on Monday December 26th at 11:19 P.M. EST we will revisit this aspect. We experienced this December 10th and because of the retrograde motion of Mercury it comes along again. However, because Mercury is now moving backwards the influence will be more internalized and may produce a less external reaction.
This is what I wrote on that date, and the same holds true today:
This is a very stimulating transit, especially for artists or anyone seeking a spiritual outlet. We will all be thinking and communicating from a deeper place than usual and the mundane actions we usual are involved in may seem less important. Poets, musicians and other creative sorts will feel a special energy that could help overcome lethargy and give you a push in the right direction. This isnÕt a very powerful aspect, and it could easily pass without notice. But if you pay attention to its energy you will feel the opening of your consciousness and an invitation into the spiritual side of life.
THE SUN SEXTILES MARS:
On Tuesday December 27th at 3:08 A.M. EST this energetic transit will bring a much needed push of vitality and power. This is a chance to get a lot done in a short period of time. The ego and the will are working well together and it will be possible to make a statement without acting too edgy. You can be assertive without being too aggressive, which will allow many of us to get our point across and be direct without upsetting the apple cart. If thereÕs a situation that has required a strong hand but youÕve been afraid to act upon it, now is a good time to contact that person or to look over the project and set things right. Use this transit to your advantage. Look forward and aim your attention where it will do you the most good. Tomorrow there are two more positive and assertive aspects that will help continue this energy and give us all another day to put things in order and bring some to a successful conclusion.
THE SUN CONJUNCTS MERCURY:
On Wednesday December 28th at 1:47 P.M. EST this common aspect occurs. This is a day of willfulness when we will feel assertive and get a self-assured attitude from most people. They will say whatÕs on their minds without much filtering, so expect to hear the unedited truth. This is the time to get to the bottom of things. ThereÕs little blocking our thoughts or conversations, so it will be easy to express yourself honestly. Use this to clear the air and to cut through the B.S. Find your common ground and talk things through. Short journeys will be very rewarding, and itÕs a good day to take a drive or a short jaunt. This is followed closely by Mercury sextile Mars (see below) which will prolong the assertive energy and allow us all a little more time to say whatÕs most pressing. Take advantage of this and if thereÕs something youÕve wanted to get off your chest, this is a good day to do so.
MERCURY SEXTILES MARS:
Also on Wednesday December 28th 6:06 P.M. EST that assertive energy I spoke of above will continue and grow stronger. There will be much forcefulness in all communications as we attempt to get our point of view heard. But this is a force you can work with and direct your thoughts in a clear and honest manner, so use it. Because we are at the end of the lunar cycle many issues of conclusion will be discussed. Any project that is close to being completed should be pushed through. ItÕs important to use the lunar cycles to your advantage. Try to finish those issues that are nearly completed so you can begin anew on the New Moon. Not everything is ready, so donÕt rush through those that will need another period of work. But if something is very close to being done you should put it out and then if there must be more editing or a reworking you may do better looking at it fresh on a new lunar cycle.
DARK OF THE MOON:
The next New Moon falls on Thursday December 29th at 1:53 A.M. EDT at 7 degrees Capricorn 59 minutes. The day or two leading up to it will be a particularly low energy period. If you tend to be emotional this may be a very trying time each month. I have found that people with prominent moons or a Cancer Sun, Moon or ascendant respond to the lunar cycles more intensely than others. Spend this time finishing up anything that is incomplete, donÕt try to initiate new projects on a waning moon, it just wonÕt work out. Once the New Moon hits you begin new projects or attempt a new approach to an existing problem. If you have been living in a situation or involved in a relationship that is intolerable or has outlived its usefulness this would be the proper time to move on with your life. If you have been working on a project that is almost complete but you seem to lack the energy for the finality, you must push during these low energy days to end the matter once and for all. If you donÕt, when the New Moon arrives it will bring this ŅdeadÓ energy along with it and conflict with the newer force being presented. Each month we are offered a chance to clean house, so to speak.
Note: All aspects are most powerful and effective as they apply. Once the transit has completed, its force is lessened. The further it separates the weaker it becomes.
Below is a list of times this month when the Moon is Void of Course and neither important decisions nor purchases should be made during these periods. The Void of Course Moon is a time when we should try to center ourselves and deal with spiritual matters not materialistic ones. Any decisions made on the VC Moon will not turn out the way we had expected.
The Moon is Void of Course from the time it makes its last major aspect in a sign until it enters the next sign. For example, if the Moon squares Mars at 27 degrees Aries and then has no more aspects until it enters Taurus it will be Void of Course for three degrees or about 6 hours. The aspects used are the conjunction, sextile, square, trine, and opposition. All times are Eastern Daylight Time:
Please note: In response to requests from readers I have added a few VOC Moons into the next lunar cycle for those who need to make plans before my next newsletter is released.
November 30th 11:08 P.M. Š December 1st 3:52 A.M.
December 3rd 5:16 A.M. Š 2:44 P.M. ***Moon is void all morning
December 5th 6:23 A.M. Š 11:31 P.M.
December 7th 9:05 A.M. Š December 8th 5:16 A.M. ***Moon is void 20 hours
December 9th 8:06 P.M. Š December 10th 7:41 A.M. ***Moon is void all night
December 11th 11:04 P.M. Š December 12th 7:41 A.M. ***Moon is void 8 hours
December 14th 12:57 A.M. Š 7:09 A.M.
December 15th 4:37 P.M. Š December 16th 8:15 A.M.***Moon is void 16 hours
December 18th 11:55 A.M. Š 12:52 P.M.
December 20th 8:56 P.M. Š 9:40 P.M.
December 22nd 2:31 P.M. Š December 23rd 9:32 A.M.
December 25th 2:22 A.M. Š 10:19 P.M. ***Moon is void 20 hours
December 27th 8:45 P.M. Š December 28th 10:12 A.M. ***Moon is void 14 hours
December 30th 3:07 A.M. Š 8:29 P.M. ***Moon is void 17 hours
January 2nd 2:59 A.M. Š 4:57 A.M.
January 4th 11:14 A.M. Š 11:20 A.M.
January 6th 1:41 P.M. Š 3:18 P.M.
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